In recent postings, we have discussed cases involving claims that a former employee wrongfully used the employer’s confidential information and trade secrets. In TNA Entertainment, LLC v. Wittenstein and World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc., Davidson County Chancery Court, Docket No. 12-746-III, the employer alleged that its former employee used confidential information concerning wrestling talent to gain an unfair competitive advantage. In Veit v. Event Logistics, Inc., Davidson County Chancery Court Docket No. 12-945-III, the former employee sued her former employer to determine whether her skills as an events coordinator and the identity of customers of event planning services were trade secrets under a separation agreement.
These cases are based on the principle that an employee has a general duty to not disclose confidential information or trade secrets belonging to her former employer. In many cases, this general duty is memorialized by a written agreement which may include a non-compete agreement, though a contract is not required to protect trade secrets. If the former employee violates her general duty and contractual obligations, the former employer may seek damages against her.
In Tennessee, the protection of trade secrets has been codified in the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (“UTSA”) found at Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 47-25-1701 et seq. Under the UTSA, an employer may sue a former employee for the misappropriation and disclosure of trade secrets.
A “trade secret” is information in any form which gives a business a competitive advantage over other businesses which do not have that information. Trade secrets include technical and nontechnical information, financial data, patterns, compilations, programs, devices, methods, techniques, processes, or plans that have economic value due to the fact that they are secret. Confidential information is often treated as trade secrets. One of the best known examples of a trade secret is the formula for Coke. In TNA Entertainment, LLC, the trade secret at issue was contractual information related to wrestling talent. In Veit, the trade secrets at issue were event coordinating skills and customer information.
An employee violates the UTSA when he discloses his employer’s trade secrets which he acquired by improper means (theft, bribery, or misrepresentation) or in violation of his duty to maintain its secrecy. A new employer may also violate the UTSA if it uses the former employer’s trade secret which was improperly acquired or disclosed by the former employee. Such an allegation was made in TNA Entertainment, LLC.
The UTSA gives an employer broad remedies if its former employee and the new employer acquires and uses its trade secrets. These include injunctive relief, a court order requiring the return of and prohibiting the use of the former employer’s trade secrets. In some cases, the court may award the former employer its actual damages and damages for unjust enrichment received by the defendants. Punitive damages up to twice the award for actual damages and unjust enrichment along with attorney fees may be awarded in cases of willful and malicious misappropriation of trade secrets.
Tennessee law recognizes the need for fair competition in the marketplace. However, it also recognizes and prohibits unfair competition arising out of the wrongful acquisition and use of trade secrets. If you would like additional information on trade secrets law, please contact one of the Burr & Forman Non-Compete & Trade Secrets team members.